模态图像。

Reyner Banham的长期不可用1976本书已被重印,由Banham Historian Addd Gannon进行了彻底的新前言。在20世纪60年代后期和70年代越来越普遍审查的城市规划和乌托邦项目越来越多的审查中,特别欢迎,评估为拆迁的纪念失败或其年龄要求苛刻的审美计划。vwin德赢是正规网站吗在短期运动的高度和西方建筑世界中的中央球员的时间内进行了一项辉煌的历史调查,该文本向历史介绍了所谓的“Megastr发生器”运动,以及有用的分类它不同的表现形式。First defined by the Japanese Metabolist Fumihiko Maki, in 1964, following the spate of projects for rebuilding that emerged from Kenzo Tange’s Tokyo office in 1960, the concept of megastructure as “a large frame in which all the functions of a city or part of a city are housed” soon took hold. It was a way for architects to respond to the demands of infrastructure, monumental form, and mass production integrated at a scale that went beyond the Modern Movement’s urban-zoning principles, to create buildings that were miniature cities and city developments conceived as single buildings.

Kiyonori Kikutake的海洋城市。

Kiyonori Kikutake的海洋城市(1958年)。照片©Kawasumi,Courtesy Kenzo Tange

Banham traces the origin of the concept to Le Corbusier’s drawings for the unbuilt Fort L’Empereur, Algiers (1931): “the massive sub-structures of an elevated super-highway, built like a gigantic bookcase of reinforced concrete on the shelves of which the inhabitants have built two-story houses to suit their own tastes,” as Banham describes it. Postwar megastructures took their cue from a wealth of earlier precedents—vernacular (the pueblo of Mesa Verde) and Modernist (the Futurist designs of Antonio Sant’Elia)—utilizing hi-tech vocabularies (such as Archigram’s) and “Brutalist” reinforced-concrete structures (Paul Rudolph’s Lower Manhattan Expressway project).

Banham,他自己是一种技术乌托邦主义,在炼油厂和Cape Canaveral的产业结构中发现的技术乌托邦主义,一直是潮流的趋势,并提供了一个内部看学术,理想主义计划和类型的类型its utopian phase—Louis Kahn’s City Hall (1958), Paolo Soleri’s Mesa City project (1959), Yona Friedman’s “Spatial Urbanism” (1960)—to the realized projects that followed: Candilis, Josic, and Woods’s Free University of Berlin (1963), Owen Luder’s Tricorn Centre, Portsmouth (1966), Moshe Safdie’s Habitat and Ray Affleck’s Place Bonaventure in Montreal (both 1967), and culminating in what for Banham represented both the triumph and the end of the megastructural experiment, Piano and Rogers’s Centre Pompidou, Paris (1977).

在他早期的书籍总结战后架构的野蛮阶段的回声中,Banham的账户现在就像失败的挽歌一样。即使“新的野蛮主义”开始作为“正如已发现”材料在战后贫困下的有前途的伦理,但已经成为审美风格,所以象征性 - 这开始是建筑师的尝试,为平等主义社会开发一个新的身体范式。订单 - 不可避免地遵循新兴新古典主义发展的政治和经济力量。虽然在邮局社会主义政府内建立的那些甲型众多会议室和新城镇项目成功地为其人口提供了高质量的环境,但vwin德赢是正规网站吗这些建筑物无法在西欧的英国和新自由主义发展中存活撒契私有化。美国中心城市甲型城市甲型大学群体重建又依靠“贫民窟清关”的标题,为商业和消费者提供服务。建筑 - 无论是道德还是审美,在Banham的条款中都无法为越来越全球化的垄断者提供抵制。